Learners must feel comfortable making mistakes. This is how they learn. Encourage learners to take risks in class by praising real effort and using errors as a useful learning tool. Make sure every individual knows that he/she has been seen and welcomed (by name, if possible).
Entry/starting routine goes hand-in-hand with Threshold). Begin each lesson with a set routine, and insist that this is followed. Equally, end each lesson with a set routine. This lets learners know that the teacher is in charge right up until the lesson ends.
The teacher calls on a specific learner to answer a question, even if his/her hand is not up. Individual voices are heard rather than having the whole class ‘chorus’ together. If learners do not know who will be called on, they are more likely to keep paying attention. Cold-Calling can be random or targeted.
Arrange the classroom so that there is space to move between groups and have contact with every learner. Walk around the classroom during the lesson (and especially during oral and written activities). Ensure that every learner / group of learners receives attention of some kind.
Streamline observation by designing materials and space so that you’re looking in the same consistent place every time for the data you need.